Archive for December 2013

Latar Belakang dan Sejarah Jaringan Komputer

Sejarah jaringan komputer global ( dunia ), dimulaipada tahun 1969, ketika Departemen Pertahan Amerika, membentuk Defense Advance Research Projects Agency ( DARPA ) yang bertujuan mengadakan riset mengenai ‘cara menghubungkan sejumlah komputer sehingga membentuk jaringan organik’.

 Program riset ini kemudian dikenal dengan nama ARPANET ( Advance Research projects Agency Network ). pada tahun 1970, lebih dari 10 komputer telah berhasil dihubungkan ( satu dengan yang lain ), saling berkomunikasi, dan membentuk sebuah jaringan. pada atahun 1972, Roy Tomlinson berhasil menyempurnakan program e-mail yang ia ciptakan setahun yang lalu untuk riset ARPANET.

 Program e-mail tersebut begitu mudah dan lansung populer saat itu. pada tahun yang sama, icon [@] diperkenalkan sebagai lambang yang menunjukkan “at” atau “pada”. Tahun 1973, jaringan komputer yang diberi nama ARPANET mulai dikembangkan meluas sampai luar Amerika Serikat. komputer di University College di London merupakan komputer diluar Amerika yang menjadi anggota jaringan ARPANET. pada tahu yang sama pula, dua orang ahli komputer Vinton Cerf dan Bob Khan mempresentasikan sebuah gagasan yang lebih besar yang menjadi cikal bakal pemikiran International Network. ide ini dipresentasikan untuk pertama kalinya di Sussex University.

 Hari bersejarah berikutnya terjadi pada tanggal 26 Maret 1976. ketika itu, ratu Inggris berhasil mengirimkan sebuah e-mail dari Royal Signals and Radar Establishment di Malvern. setahun kemudian, lebih dari 100 komputer telah bergabung dalam system ARPANET dan membentuk sebuah jaringan atau Network.

 Pada tahun 1979, Tom Truscott, Jim Ellis, dan Steve Bellovin menciptakan Newsgroups pertama yang diberi nama USENET ( User Network ). pada tahun 1981, France Telecommenciptakan sebuah gebrakan baru dengan meluncurkan telepon televisi pertama dunia ( orang dapat saling menelepon sambil berinteraksi denagan Video link ).

 seiring dengan bertambahnya komputer yang membentuk jaringan, dibutuhkan sebuah protokol resmi yang dapat diakui dan diterima oleh semua jaringan. untuk itu, pada tahun 1982 dibentuk sebuah komisi Transmission Control Protocol ( TCP ) atau lebih dikenal dengan sebutan Internet Protocol ( IP ) yang kita kenal hingga saat ini. sementara itu, didaratan Eropa muncul sebuah jaringan tandingan yang dikenal dengan Europe Network ( EUNET ) yang meliputi wilayah Belanda, Inggris, Denmark, dan Swedia. Jaringan eunet ini menyediakan jasa e-mail dan newsgroup USENET.

 Untuk menyeragamkan alamat jaringan komputer yang sudah ada, pada tahun 1984 diperkenalkan system dengan nama DOMAIN yang lebih dikenal dengan Domain Name System ( DNS ). dengan system DNS, komputer yang tersambung dengan jaringan melebihi 1.000 komputer. pada tahun 1987 diperkirakan komputer yang tersambung ke jaringan tersebut melonjak 10 kali lipat menjadi 10.000 komputer lebih.

 Tahun 1988, Jarkko Oikarinen berkebangsaan Finlandia menemukan sekaligus memperkenalkan Internet Relay Chat atau lebih dikenal dengan IRC yang memungkinkan dua orang atau lebih pengguna komputer dapat berinteraksi secara langsung dengan pengiriman pesan ( Chatting ). akibatnya, setahun kemudian jumlah komputer yang saling berhubungan melonjak 10 kali lipat. tak kurang dari 100.000 komputer membentuk sebuah jaringan.pertengahan tahun 1990 merupakan tahun yang paling bersejarah, ketika Tim Berners Lee merancang sebuah programe editor dan browser yang dapat menjelajai komputer yang satu dengan yang lainnya dengan membentuk jaringan. programe inilah yang disebut WWW atau World Wide Web.

 Tahun 1992, komputer yang saling tersambung membentuk jaringan sudah melampaui lebih dari stau juta komputer. pada tahun yang sama muncul satu istilah yang beken, yaitu Surfing ( Menjelajah ). tahun 1994, situs-situs Dunia mulai tumbuh dengan subur ( setidaknya, saat itu terdapat 3.000 alamat halaman ) dan bentuk pertama kalinya Virtual Shopping atau e-retail muncul diberbagai situs. Dunia langsung berubah dengan diluncurkannya perusahaan Search Engine Pertama, yaitu Yahoo!. yang dibangun oleh David Filo dan Jerry yang pada bulan April 1994. Netscape Navigator 1.0. diluncurkan dipenghujung tahun 1994.

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INVESTASI DI PASAR MODAL BERKEMBANG

Pada era globalisasi saat ini, dimana hambatan-hambatan perekonomian semakin pudar, peralihan arus dana dari pihak yang surplus kepada yang defisit akan semakin cepat dan tanpa hambatan. Pasar Modal sebagai pintu investasi terhadap aliran dana dari pihak yang kelebihan kekayaan (surplus) kepada pihak yang kekurangan dana (defisit) berperan sebagai lembaga perantara keuangan. Investor disini adalah pihak yang surplus dalam kaitannya dengan keuangan.

Siapakah pihak-pihak surplus ini? Dalam kaitannya dalam investasi dan sumber dana yang digunakannya, investor dapat dibagi. Pertama, adalah investor domestik yaitu adalah investor yang berasal dari dalam negeri yang menyusun portofolio asetnya di pasar modal dalam negeri. Kedua adalah investor asing, yaitu investor yang memiliki sejumlah dana dari luar negeri yang menyusun portofolio asetnya pada sejumlah negara yang berbeda.

Investasi asing yang datang ke negara-negara lain sebenarnya memiliki motif klasik yang meliputi, motif mencari bahan mentah atau sumber daya alam, mencari pasar baru dan meminimalkan biaya. Dari motif klasik tersebut kadangkala investor memiliki motif lain yaitu motif mengembangkan teknologi. Investor menyalurkan dananya ke negara lain biasanya tidak hanya membawa satu motif saja tetapi bisa karena beberapa motif sekaligus.

Paling tidak ada empat cara investor dapat masuk ke suatu negara: distressed asset investment, strategic investment, direct investment dan portfolio investment. Distressed asset investment adalah investasi yang dilakukan untuk mendapatkan kepemilikan atau membeli hutang suatu perusahaan dalam kesulitan keuangan. Kedua, strategic investment secara umum investor asing mengakuisisi perusahaan yang memiliki pangsa pasar cukup luas dan berada dalam segmen bisnis serta faktor lokasi yang mendukung strategi ekspansi perusahaan investor. Ketiga yakni investasi langsung (direct investment) biasanya berlangsung pada sektor yang belum begitu berkembang, misalnya pembangunan yang sarat teknologi atau pembangunan di sektor otomotif, biasanya perusahaan. Keempat adalah portofolio investment yaitu investasi dalam surat hutang dan saham di pasar modal.

Portofolio investment inilah yang selama ini menjadi perhatian banyak praktisi di bidang pasar modal. Mengapa demikian? Karena jenis investor ini merupakan yang paling cepat memindahkan eksposurnya di suatu negara jika terjadi gejolak (politik, ekonomi, kurs) yang diintrepretasikan sebagai ketidakpastian. Mereka juga adalah investor yang memiliki pilihan paling luas dibanding ke tiga jenis investor di atas. Sehingga jika ada kejadian tertentu baik secara makro, sekoral ataupun regulasi pemerintah, maka investor ini adalah yang lebih rentan dan sensitif terhadap refleksi atas informasi tersebut. Besarnya nilai investasi asing yang masuk atau keluar, praktis juga akan mempengaruhi pasar secara keseluruhan akibat adanya volume transaksi yang besar.

Peranan modal asing dalam pembangunan negara telah lama diperbincangkan oleh para ahli ekonomi pembangunan. Secara garis besar menurut Chereney dan Carter yaitu pertama, sumber dana eksternal (modal asing) dapat dimanfaatkan oleh emerging country sebagai dasar untuk mempercepat investasi dan pertumbuhan ekonomi. Kedua, pertumbuhan ekonomi yang meningkat perlu diikuti dengan perubahan struktur produksi dan perdagangan. Ketiga, modal asing dapat berperan penting dalam mobilisasi dana maupun transformasi struktural. 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Latar Belakang dan Sejarah Jaringan Komputer

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